The institute of physiology NAS RA was founded in 1943, at the same time with the Academy of Sciences of Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1959, it is named after academician L.A. Orbeli. The real ground for its organization were the physiological achievements of Armenian scientists working in high educational institutions and at the State University of Armenia. L.A.Orbeli institute of physiology NAS RA is the basic scientific centre of physiology in Armenia. The scientific direction is the neurophysiology - studying integrative, plastic properties of nervous system, central regulation mechanisms of motor and vegetative functions of organism. Scientific leaders and directors of the institute were Kh.S. Koshtoyants, G.P. Mushegyan, E.A. Hasratyan, A.I. Karamyan, A.M. Alexanyan, S.A. Bakunts, V.V. Fanarjyan, L.R. Manvelyan, K.V.Kazaryan. Currently there are 12 research laboratories. Directs the institute N.M.Ayvazyan.
At the institute operates Physiological Society of Armenia, Armenian Association of International Brain Research Organization (IBRO).